MAYNARD, AR (KAIT/AP) - As one world leader after another paid homage to Nelson Mandela at a memorial service, the man standing at arm's length from them appeared to interpret their words in sign language. But advocates for the deaf say he was a faker.
The incident, which outraged deaf people and sign-language interpreters watching the service broadcast around the globe, raised questions of how the unidentified man managed to crash a supposedly secure event attended by scores of heads of state, including President Barack Obama.
State certified interpreter Donna Peppers' reaction to the interpreter echoes the concern from the deaf community since the incident happened.
"Everytime anybody says anything he's doing the same signs. Everytime," she said. "When I saw it I was outraged. (I felt) empathy for the deaf people that were there expecting to be able to see and understand what was being said."
Peppers says she has experience with interpreting events, but her primary work is servicing Region 8.
"(A rally was held in Jonesboro that President Clinton spoke at and I interpreted that rally. My daughter and I did that," she said. "I work everywhere around here, doctor's office, hospital, counseling, physical therapy, DHS appointments. I've even done surgery."
Peppers said legislators passed Act 1314 in 2013 to protect Arkansans if an incident like the memorial service ever happened in Arkansas.
"When it comes into effect if somebody sends an interpreter out that is not licensed. It doesn't matter how good they are if they are not licensed the interpreter will have a fine, the business that hires them will have a fine, and the agency that sends them out will have a fine."
The man, who stood about a yard (one meter) from Obama and other leaders, "was moving his hands around, but there was no meaning in what he used his hands for," Bruno Druchen, national director of the Deaf Federation of South Africa, told The Associated Press on Wednesday.
When South African Deputy President Cyril Rampaphosa told the crowd that former South African President F.W. de Klerk was among the guests, the man at his side used a strange pushing motion unknown in sign language that did not identify de Klerk or say anything about his presence, said Ingrid Parkin, principal of the St. Vincent School for the Deaf in Johannesburg.
The closest the man's gestures came to anything in sign language at that point might possibly be the words for "running horse," ''friend" or "beyond," she said, but only by someone who signs terribly.
The man also used virtually no facial expressions to convey the often-emotional speeches, an absolute must for sign-language interpreters, Parkin said.
Collins Chabane, one of South Africa's two presidency ministers, said the government is investigating "alleged incorrect use of sign language at the National Memorial Service," but has not finished because it has been overwhelmed with organizing the public viewing of Mandela's body in Pretoria and his funeral Sunday in his hometown of Qunu. He did not identify the man, but said the "government will report publicly on any information it may establish."
U.S. Secret Service spokesman Ed Donovan said in response to an emailed question by the AP that "agreed-upon security measures between the U.S. Secret Service and South African government security officials were in place" during the service.
"Program items such as stage participants or sign-language interpreters were the responsibility of the host organizing committee," Donovan added.
Four experts, including Druchen and Parkin, told the AP the man was not signing in South African or American sign languages and could not have been signing in any other known sign language because there was no structure to his arm and hand movements. South African sign language covers all of the country's 11 official languages, according to the federation.
"This man himself knows he cannot sign and he had the guts to stand on an international stage and do that," Parkin said. "It's absolutely impossible that he is any kind of interpreter. Or a language person at all, because he's not even using a language there."
Nicole Du Toit, a sign-language interpreter who also watched the broadcast, said in a telephone interview that the man was an embarrassment for South Africa.
"It was horrible, an absolute circus, really, really bad," she said. "Only he can understand those gestures."
The man also did sign interpretation at an event last year that was attended by South African President Jacob Zuma, Druchen said. At that appearance, a deaf person in the audience videotaped the event and gave it to the deaf federation, which analyzed the video, prepared a report and submitted a formal complaint to the governing African National Congress party, Druchen said.
In the complaint, the federation suggested the man should take the five years of training needed to become a qualified sign language interpreter in South Africa. But the ANC never responded, Druchen said.
A new complaint will be filed to the ANC with a demand for an urgent meeting, he said.
Click here to read the response from the National Association of the Deaf regarding the Mandela memorial service incident.
Email firstname.lastname@example.org for more information about Donna Pepper's services.