Shad Stocking in Greers Ferry Lake

Shad Stocking in Greers Ferry Lake

HEBER SPRINGS (AGFC) – The Arkansas Game and Fish Commission has initiated a project to bring excellent fishing back to Greers Ferry Lake, and it all starts with what is on the menu.

Early in 2015, many predator fish species in Greers Ferry Lake were exhibiting poor condition.

"It was evident in the crappie, largemouth bass, walleye and hybrid striped bass we sampled that there was not enough forage to support the predator population," said Tom Bly, fisheries supervisor at the AGFC's Mayflower office. "There are many minnows and bream species in Greers Ferry, but gizzard shad and threadfin shad are the dominant forage species. Just about everything eats them."

Bly says threadfin shad are the most preferred food of many predator fish because their maximum size is still easy for most predators to fit in their mouths, but they're fragile.

"Threadfin shad are a subtropical and southern temperate fish that prefer warm water," Bly said. Water temperatures in the low 40's can cause significant mortalities in threadfin populations and the winters of 2014 and 2015 caused surface temperatures in Greers Ferry to plummet to less than 40 degrees for several weeks."

Bly says shad in lakes as large as Greers Ferry can usually find refuge from the cold in deeper water. The species is very prolific and it does not take them long to recover from winterkill if enough survive to reproduce."

Biologists became alarmed when intensive sampling of Greers Ferry last year failed to produce the first threadfin shad. Since you can't make something from nothing, the AGFC developed a plan to reestablish the population through stocking.

Biologists stocked approximately 37,000 threadfin shad in late April to reestablish this important forage fish in the lake. This species is not readily available for stocking, nor is it raised in the AGFC hatchery system, so biologists purchased the shad from American Sport Fish of Montgomery, Alabama, a commercial facility with a long history of culturing threadfin that meets all of Arkansas's disease testing and monitoring requirements for importing fish. Some of the fish were stocked directly into the lake, while many went into a nursery pond to grow and reproduce before being released.

"Threadfin typically spawn more than once a year and young produced in the first spawn, April or May, will be mature enough to spawn by August or September," Bly said.

Bly says the entire management strategy for the lake will shift to bolstering the forage base. Direct stockings of threadfin to the lake will continue until the lake's shad population shows signs of recovery. The lake's nursery pond will be used to culture minnows, bluegill and threadfin as well to supplement the direct stockings.

"We also will not stock any predators until the forage population recovers," Bly said. "This includes largemouth, spotted and smallmouth bass, walleye and hybrid striped bass. Once the forage recovers, we will stock these species in a manner that lends itself to a more sustainable fishery."